Inflorescence of racemes or spikes, these solitary, digitate or scattered along an axis, rarely a dense ovoid, spike like panicle Fingerhuthia. Poaceae Tribe Chlorideae. Spikelets flowered the two lower florets may be reduced to minute chaffy scales at the base of the fertile lemma. Lemmas indurated at maturity or if hyaline then bibbed with the lobes produced as 2 stout scabrid bristles.
Lemmas hyaline or membranous at maturity, not bibbed with the lobes produced as stout scabrid bristles. Poaceae Tribe Milieae.
Poaceae in Flora of Pakistan @ ifibavukipuj.tk
Lemmas usually awned; glumes longer and firmer than the hyaline lemma; grain with adherent pericarp. Lemmas usually awnless; glumes and lemmas similar in texture, the former often shorter; grain with loose pericarp lemma long-awned and pericarp adherent in Muhlenbergia. Poaceae Tribe Sporoboleae. Florets 2 per spikelet, the lower male or barren, the upper bisexual, rarely the rhachilla produced and bearing a third male or rudimentary floret. Florets 3 per spikelet, the fertile floret with 2 sterile florets below; rhachilla not produced.
Poaceae Tribe Arundineae. Spikelets 2-flowered, both of the lemmas hardened or leathery; spikelets awnless. Inflorescence made up of racemes, either solitary, digitate or scattered along an axis, sometimes in dense ovoid heads. Inflorescence an open to contracted panicle, if a simple spike then lemma 5- or more nerved. Lemma nerved, if 5-nerved then the two lowermost lemmas empty and resembling the glumes Tetrachne. Poaceae Tribe Aeluropodeae. Glumes shorter than the lowest lemma, with the upper florets distinctly exserted; lemmas awnless or with a straight awn from the entire or bilobed tip.
Glumes longer than the lowest lemma, usually as long as the spikelet and enclosing the florets, rarely shorter but then the lemmas with a geniculate or dorsal awn; lemmas 5-many-nerved. Lemmas nerved, if 5-nerved then plant producing cleistogamous spikelets cleistogenes form the lower sheaths Kengia.
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Lemmas 5-many-nerved, if 3-nerved then plant a tall, broad-leaved fescue Festuca asthenica or the lemma with a blunt, broadly hyaline tip. Sheaths open along the edges; all florets fertile or the upper gradually reduced, rarely the spikelets dimorphic Lamarckia.
The Families of Angiosperms
Only the lowest florets fertile, the upper clearly barren and often reduced to a clavate mass of sterile lemmas. All florets fertile or the upper gradually reduced; lemmas with distinctive parallel nerves. Poaceae Tribe Glycerieae. Lemmas awned from the sinus of the prominently 2-lobed tip; ligule a ciliate fringe. Spikelets solitary, rarely paired with the spikelets all alike; glumes usually membranous, the lower mostly smaller or sometimes suppressed; upper lemma papery to polished and stony, usually awnless.
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8.3: Three plant families you wanted to know but were too afraid to ask
Hong Song. Chasmanthium latifolium Xiangying Wen. Miscanthus sinensis Xiangying Wen. Phyllostachys aureosulcata Xiangying Wen. Poaceae sp. Related Links opens in a new window. This family is also the most important economically, providing species that are the world's staple food supply. The grasses have reduced floral structures compared with most angiosperms for the reason that grasses are almost exclusively pollinated by wind. Therefore, these plants have had no cause to evolve floral structures that are attractive to insect or other animal pollinators.
The grasses also have a fairly specific body plan that is immediately recognizable and very successful for colonizing seasonally dry landscapes, yet modifiable to suit a wide range of ecological conditions. Bor stated:. Grasses have fibrous roots and three kinds of stems: culms, rhizomes, and stolons. The culm is the main aerial shoot to which leaves and flower head are attached. The culm is a rounded or slightly flattened stem with one or more solid joints known as nodes.
The leaves are attached at the nodes and if the stem is not simple but branched, branches arise only at nodes. Roots may also develop from a node where the node comes into contact with the ground as in decumbent and prostrate stems. The portion of the stem between the nodes is called the internode , and is usually hollow in temperate zone grasses and solid in tropical grasses Rotar, All or a portion of an internode may be surrounded by the basal part of the leaf known as the sheath.
A rhizome is a modified stem that grows underground. Rhizomes are jointed thus distinguishable from roots with bladeless leaves scales arising from the joints.
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Rhizomes enable the grass plant to spread horizontally as new culms develop vertically from the joints. Thus, grasses with extensive rhizome development will form a turf rather than distinct tufts or bunches.
A stolon is a stem that creeps across the surface of the ground, and is really a basal branch of the culm that will develop roots and shoots from some or all of its nodes. Like a rhizome, a stolon results in a spreading or turf forming grass plant.
Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae)
Grasses display two types of leaves: 1 green leaves consisting of a sheath and blade, and 2 reduced leaves consisting of only a sheath. With but a few exceptions, the green leaves arise at nodes alternately up the culm. Leaves that are concentrated near the base where the internodes are very short are termed basal leaves ; leaves arising at nodes along an elongated culm are cauline leaves. These vegetative leaves typically surround the culm as a sheath , then diverge outward at the "collar" as a long narrow blade with longitudinal parallel venation.
If the veins are conspicuous, the leaf is striate; if the veins are raised, the leaf is ribbed. The sheath of the leaf surrounds and protects the shoot. In some species, the sheath extends beyond the next node, so that consecutive leaf sheaths overlap, hiding the nodes.